ISSN 1119-4618
 

Original Research 


Distribution of sunbird species within and around the Amurum Forest Reserve, Nigeria

Adams A. Chaskda, Samuel Ekanem, Longtong G. Turshak, Filibus D. Dami.

Abstract
Monitoring the distribution of bird species across a landscape provides information on habitat occupancy and utilization. This study determined the distribution of the five sunbird species (variable sunbird, scarlet-chested sunbird, green-headed sunbird, copper sunbird and pygmy sunbird) known to exist within the Amurum Forest Reserve. Distribution was determined both within and outside the Amurum Forest Reserve and across the habitat types in the area (gallery forest, savannah scrub and rocky outcrop) and anthropogenic scales (roads, houses and farmlands). The study was conducted between September to October 2014 using presence and absence data. A total of 60-sample points were selected using stratified random sampling. The presence or absence of the candidate bird species was determined across all points after two visits. The study revealed the variable sunbird, Cinnyris venustus as the most widely distributed of the five sunbird species this sunbird species also occurred across all habitat types equally as compared to the scarlet-chested sunbird, Chalcomitra senegalensis which was more skewed in distribution towards the rocky outcrop areas of the reserve. The sunbirds also appeared to utilise areas of anthropogenic disturbance when outside the reserve perhaps due to the presence of several green areas outside of the reserve. The uneven distribution of the birds across the landscape may as a result of niche partitioning to avoid competition. Also, lack of presence of the other sunbird species throughout the period of study was linked to their migratory behavior as reported in some literatures. The study re-emphasizes the importance of the Amurum Forest Reserve as a good refuge for birds in the area.

Key words: distribution, sunbird, anthropogenic disturbance, Amurum Forest Reserve


 
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How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Chaskda AA, Ekanem S, Turshak LG, Dami FD, . Distribution of sunbird species within and around the Amurum Forest Reserve, Nigeria. JPAS. 2021; 21(1): 114-118. doi:10.5455/sf.45159


Web Style

Chaskda AA, Ekanem S, Turshak LG, Dami FD, . Distribution of sunbird species within and around the Amurum Forest Reserve, Nigeria. http://www.atbuscienceforum.com/?mno=45159 [Access: May 10, 2021]. doi:10.5455/sf.45159


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Chaskda AA, Ekanem S, Turshak LG, Dami FD, . Distribution of sunbird species within and around the Amurum Forest Reserve, Nigeria. JPAS. 2021; 21(1): 114-118. doi:10.5455/sf.45159



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Chaskda AA, Ekanem S, Turshak LG, Dami FD, . Distribution of sunbird species within and around the Amurum Forest Reserve, Nigeria. JPAS. (2021), [cited May 10, 2021]; 21(1): 114-118. doi:10.5455/sf.45159



Harvard Style

Chaskda, A. A., Ekanem, S., Turshak, L. G., Dami, F. D. & (2021) Distribution of sunbird species within and around the Amurum Forest Reserve, Nigeria. JPAS, 21 (1), 114-118. doi:10.5455/sf.45159



Turabian Style

Chaskda, Adams A., Samuel Ekanem, Longtong G. Turshak, Filibus D. Dami, and . 2021. Distribution of sunbird species within and around the Amurum Forest Reserve, Nigeria. Science Forum (Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences), 21 (1), 114-118. doi:10.5455/sf.45159



Chicago Style

Chaskda, Adams A., Samuel Ekanem, Longtong G. Turshak, Filibus D. Dami, and . "Distribution of sunbird species within and around the Amurum Forest Reserve, Nigeria." Science Forum (Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences) 21 (2021), 114-118. doi:10.5455/sf.45159



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Chaskda, Adams A., Samuel Ekanem, Longtong G. Turshak, Filibus D. Dami, and . "Distribution of sunbird species within and around the Amurum Forest Reserve, Nigeria." Science Forum (Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences) 21.1 (2021), 114-118. Print. doi:10.5455/sf.45159



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Chaskda, A. A., Ekanem, S., Turshak, L. G., Dami, F. D. & (2021) Distribution of sunbird species within and around the Amurum Forest Reserve, Nigeria. Science Forum (Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences), 21 (1), 114-118. doi:10.5455/sf.45159