ISSN 1119-4618
 

Original Research 


Diurnal visitation of flowers of cowpea by insect pollinators with emphasis on the Western honeybee, Apis mellifera, in Bauchi, Nigeria

Usman H Dukku, Josiah P Mukaddas.

Abstract
In order to study the diurnal visitation of flowers of cowpea by insect pollinators, the number of open flowers of cowpea and the kind and number of insects visiting the flowers were recorded, for a period of five minutes, and at intervals of one hour, from sunrise to sunset, in a quadrat of one square metre, placed randomly, on a cowpea farm. Flowers of cowpea opened from 6:00 hr. to 13:00 hr., daily. A total of 388 open flowers and 256 insect visitors were recorded during the seven-day period of the study. 52.3% of the visitors belonged to the order Hymenoptera (honeybees, wasps and ants), 26.2% to Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) and 21.5% to Diptera (flies). Among the hymenopterans, 42.3% were honeybees, 40.9% ants and 16.8% wasps. The results of this study suggest that, in every hour, approximately 47,000 insect pollinators (including 9,800 honeybees) were exposed to insecticide, in every hectare of flowering cowpea, if spraying was done between 6:00 hr. and 13:00 hr. Thus, to minimise the impact of insecticides on these beneficial insects, cowpea fields should be sprayed from 14: 00 hr. and beyond.

Key words: Cowpea, honeybee, insecticide, pollination, Hymenoptera


 
ARTICLE TOOLS
Abstract
PDF Fulltext
Print this article Print this Article
How to cite this articleHow to cite this article
Citation Tools
Related Records
 Articles by Usman H Dukku
Articles by Josiah P Mukaddas
on Google
on Google Scholar
Article Statistics
 Viewed: 800
Downloaded: 39
Cited: 0

How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Dukku UH, Mukaddas JP, . Diurnal visitation of flowers of cowpea by insect pollinators with emphasis on the Western honeybee, Apis mellifera, in Bauchi, Nigeria. JPAS. 2019; 17(1): 10-14. doi:10.5455/sf.21899


Web Style

Dukku UH, Mukaddas JP, . Diurnal visitation of flowers of cowpea by insect pollinators with emphasis on the Western honeybee, Apis mellifera, in Bauchi, Nigeria. http://www.atbuscienceforum.com/?mno=21899 [Access: April 22, 2019]. doi:10.5455/sf.21899


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Dukku UH, Mukaddas JP, . Diurnal visitation of flowers of cowpea by insect pollinators with emphasis on the Western honeybee, Apis mellifera, in Bauchi, Nigeria. JPAS. 2019; 17(1): 10-14. doi:10.5455/sf.21899



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Dukku UH, Mukaddas JP, . Diurnal visitation of flowers of cowpea by insect pollinators with emphasis on the Western honeybee, Apis mellifera, in Bauchi, Nigeria. JPAS. (2019), [cited April 22, 2019]; 17(1): 10-14. doi:10.5455/sf.21899



Harvard Style

Dukku, U. H., Mukaddas, . J. P. & (2019) Diurnal visitation of flowers of cowpea by insect pollinators with emphasis on the Western honeybee, Apis mellifera, in Bauchi, Nigeria. JPAS, 17 (1), 10-14. doi:10.5455/sf.21899



Turabian Style

Dukku, Usman H, Josiah P Mukaddas, and . 2019. Diurnal visitation of flowers of cowpea by insect pollinators with emphasis on the Western honeybee, Apis mellifera, in Bauchi, Nigeria. Science Forum (Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences), 17 (1), 10-14. doi:10.5455/sf.21899



Chicago Style

Dukku, Usman H, Josiah P Mukaddas, and . "Diurnal visitation of flowers of cowpea by insect pollinators with emphasis on the Western honeybee, Apis mellifera, in Bauchi, Nigeria." Science Forum (Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences) 17 (2019), 10-14. doi:10.5455/sf.21899



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Dukku, Usman H, Josiah P Mukaddas, and . "Diurnal visitation of flowers of cowpea by insect pollinators with emphasis on the Western honeybee, Apis mellifera, in Bauchi, Nigeria." Science Forum (Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences) 17.1 (2019), 10-14. Print. doi:10.5455/sf.21899



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Dukku, U. H., Mukaddas, . J. P. & (2019) Diurnal visitation of flowers of cowpea by insect pollinators with emphasis on the Western honeybee, Apis mellifera, in Bauchi, Nigeria. Science Forum (Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences), 17 (1), 10-14. doi:10.5455/sf.21899